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It is the capital of Kandahar Province , and also the center of the larger cultural region called Loy Kandahar. In , Mirwais Hotak made the region an independent kingdom and turned Kandahar into the capital of the Hotak dynasty. Kandahar is one of the most culturally significant cities of the Pashtuns and has been their traditional seat of power for more than years. It is a major trading center for sheep, wool , cotton, silk, felt , food grains , fresh and dried fruit , and tobacco. The region produces fine fruits, especially pomegranates and grapes, and the city has plants for canning, drying, and packing fruit, and is a major source of marijuana and hashish en route to Tajikistan. The region around Kandahar is one of the oldest known human settlements.
Another Bronze Age village mound site with multiroomed mud-brick buildings dating from the same period sits nearby at Said Qala J. Shaffer, Second millennium B. Bronze Age potterycopper and bronze horse trappings and stone seals were found in the lowermost levels in the nearby cave called Shamshir Ghar Dupree, In the Seistansouthwest of these Kandahar sites, two teams of American archaeologists discovered sites relating to the 2nd millennium B.
Stylistically the finds from Deh Morasi and Said Qala tie in with those of pre- Indus Valley sites and with those of comparable age on the Iranian Plateau and in Central Asia, indicating cultural contacts during this very early age. British excavations in the s discovered that Kandahar existed as a large fortified city during the early 1st millennium BCE; while this earliest period at Kandahar has not been precisely dated via radiocarbonceramic comparisons with the latest period at the major Bronze Age city of Mundigak have suggested an approximate time-frame of to BCE.
Mundigak served as the provincial capital of Arachosia and was ruled by the Medes followed by the Achaemenids until the arrival of the Greeks from Macedonia.
The main inhabitants of Arachosia were the Pakhtas an ancient Iranian tribe, who may be among the ancestors of today's Pashtuns.
Kandahar was named Alexandriaa name given to cities that Alexander founded during his conquests. Kandahar has been a frequent target for conquest because of its strategic location in Southern Asia, controlling the main trade route linking the Indian subcontinent with the Middle East and Central Asia.
It is mentioned by Strabo that a treaty of friendship was established eventually between the Greeks and the Mauryas Indians. While the Diadochi were warring amongst themselves, the Mauryas were developing in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent. The founder of the empire, Chandragupta Mauryaconfronted a Macedonian invasion force led by Seleucus I in BC and following a brief conflict, an agreement was reached as Seleucus ceded Gandhara and Arachosia and areas south of Bagram to the Mauryas.
During the years of the Mauryas in southern Afghanistan, Buddhism was introduced and eventually become a major religion alongside Zoroastrianism and local pagan beliefs. Commerce, art, and architecture seen especially in the construction of stupas developed during this period.
It reached its high point under the Mauryan Emperor Ashoka whose edicts, roads, and rest stops were found throughout the subcontinent.
Although the vast majority of them throughout the subcontinent were written in Prakrit, Afghanistan is notable for the inclusion of two Greek and Aramaic ones alongside the court language of the Mauryas. Inscriptions made by Emperor Ashoka, a fragment of Edict 13 in Greek, as well as a full Edict, written in both Greek and Aramaic has been discovered in Kandahar.
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It is said to be written in excellent Classical Greek, using sophisticated philosophical terms. The last ruler in the region was probably Subhagasena Sophagasenus of Polybiuswho, in all probability, belonged to the Ashvaka q. In the 7th century A Arab armies conquered the region with the new religion of Islam but were unable to succeed in fully converting the population.
The leader of the expedition that conquered the city was Abbad ibn Ziya who governed Sijistan between and It is believed that the Zunbil dynastywere probably the rulers of the Kandahar region from the 7th century until the late 9th century AD. During this period, nearby Panjway served as the administrative center for the area.
However, Kandahar was of much more strategic importance, to the extent that Minhaj-i-Siraj attributes the downfall of the Ghaznavids to the loss of Kandahar. Again, the reason for the name change is not clear.
Kandahar was besieged by a Mongol army inalthough Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu defeated them. However, the city is mentioned as being under Chagatai control in ; Kandahar didn't come under Kart control until Later, ina Chagatai prince raised an army from Kandahar against the Ilkhanid governor of Sistan. Timurfounder of the Timurid Empirecaptured Kandahar in He appointed his grandson Pir Muhammad as governor of Kandahar in Kandahar was entrusted to the Arghuns in the late 15th century, who eventually achieved independence from the Timurids.
Guru Nanakthe founder of Sikhismis believed to have visited the town c. Tamerlane's descendant, Baburthe founder of the Mughal Empireannexed Kandahar in InBabur's son, Humayunhanded it over to the Safavid Shah Tahmasp in return of 70, soldiers he received from the Shah to reconquer India. InHumayun 's son Akbar the Great conquered the city by diplomacy. Akbar died in and when this news reached the Persian court, Shah Abbas ordered his army to besiege the city which continued until early and finally failed due to the reinforcements send by the Mughal Emperor Jahangir forced the Safavid retreat.
Kandahar was regarded as important to the Mughal Empire because it was one of the gateways to India, and Mughal control over Kandahar helped to prevent foreign intrusions.
Mirwais Hotakchief of the Ghilji tribe, revolted in by killing Gurgin Khanan ethnic Georgian subject and governor of the Shia Safavid Persians. Mirwais resisted attempts by the Persian government who were seeking to convert the Afghans from Sunni to the Shia sect of Islam.
He died of a natural death in November and was succeeded by his brother Abdul Azizbut after being suspected of giving Kandahar's sovereignty back to the Persians he was killed by his nephew Mahmud Hotak. The Hotak dynasty was eventually removed from power by a new Persian ruler, Nader Shah.
Before leaving southern Afghanistan for Delhi in India, Nader Shah laid out the foundation for a new town to be built next to the destroyed ancient city, naming it " Naderabad ". His rule ended in June after being murdered by his Persian guards. Ahmad Shah Durrani, chief of the Durrani tribe, gained control of Kandahar and made it the capital of his new Afghan Empire in October In OctoberAhmad Shah retired and died from a natural cause.
Byhis eldest son Timur Shah had transferred Afghanistan's main capital from Kandahar to Kabul, where the Durrani legacy continued. In SeptemberSyed Ahmad Shaheed 's followers arrived to Kandahar in search of volunteers to help them wage jihad against the Sikh invaders to what is now Pakistan. Led by Ranjit Singhthe Sikhs had captured several of Afghanistan's territories in the east, including what is now Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Kashmir.
More than local Kandahar warriors assembled themselves for the jihad. Sayed Din Mohammad Kandharai was appointed as their leader. British-led Indian forces from neighbouring British India invaded the city induring the First Anglo-Afghan Warbut withdrew in They emerged from the city in July to confront the forces of Ayub Khanbut were defeated at the Battle of Maiwand. They were again forced to withdraw a few years later, despite winning the Battle of Kandahar.
Kandahar remained peaceful for the next years, except during when loyalists of Habibullah Kalakani Bache Saqqaw placed the fortified city on lock-down and began torturing its population. Nobody was allowed to enter or leave from within the city's tall defensive walls, and as a result of this many people suffered after running out of food supplies. This lasted until October when Nadir Khan and his Afghan army came to eliminate Kalakani, known as the Tajik bandit from the village of Kalakan in northern Kabul Province.
During Zahir Shah 's rule, the city slowly began expanding by adding modern style streets and housing schemes. Army Corps of Engineers next to the city. The U. In the meantime, Soviet engineers were busy building major infrastructures in other parts of the country, such as Bagram Airfield and Kabul International Airport.
During the s Soviet-Afghan WarKandahar witnessed heavy fighting as it became a center of resistance as the mujahideen forces waged a strong guerrilla warfare against the Soviet-backed governmentwho tightly held on control of the city. Government and Soviet troops surrounded the city and subjected it to heavy air bombardment in which many civilians lost lives.
The city also became a battle ground for the US and Pakistani-backed against the pro-Communist government of Afghanistan. After the Soviet withdrawal and the collapse of Najibullah 's government inKandahar fell to local mujahideen commander, Gul Agha Sherzai.
However Sherzai lacked authority against other local commanders which led to lawlessness in the city. In August the Taliban movement captured Kandahar from commander Mullah Naqib almost without a fight,  and turned the city to its capital. The Taliban introduced a strict form of sharia lawbanning formal education for boys and girls, including watching TV, films, music, and playing sports.
In Decembera hijacked Indian Airlines Flight plane by Pakistani militants loyal to Harkat-ul-Mujahideen landed at Kandahar International Airport and kept the passengers hostage as part of a demand to release 3 Pakistani militants from prison in India.
In Octoberas part of Operation Enduring Freedomthe United States Navy began hitting targets inside the city by precision-guided cruise missiles that were fired from the Persian Gulf.
These targets were the airport and buildings that were occupied by the Taliban, including Arab families who had arrived several years earlier and were residing in the area.
He was transferred in and replaced by Yousef Pashtun until Asadullah Khalid took the post in The current Governor of the province is Toryalai Wesa. NATO began training the newly formed Afghan National Police and are now given the security responsibility of the city. The military of Afghanistanbacked by NATO forces, has gradually expanded its authority and presence throughout most of the country.
The th Corps of the Afghan National Army is based at Kandahar and provides military assistance to the south of the country.
The Taliban also have supporters inside the city reporting on events. NATO forces expanded the Afghan police force for the prevention of a Taliban comeback in Kandahar, the militants' "spiritual birthplace" and a strategic key to ward off the Taliban insurgencyas a part of a larger effort that also aimed to deliver services such as electricity and clean drinking water that the Taliban could not provide - encouraging support for the government in a city that was once the Taliban's headquarters.
The Taliban failed to defeat the Western troops in open warfare, which marked a turn in their tactics towards IED emplacement. In Springthe province and the city of Kandahar became a target of American operations following Operation Moshtarak in the neighboring Helmand Province.
In May Kandahar International Airport became subject of a combined rocket and ground attack by insurgents, following similar attacks on Kabul and Bagram in the preceding weeks. Although this attack did not lead to many casualties on the side of NATO forces, it did show that the militants are still capable of launching multiple, coordinated operations in Afghanistan. In Junea shura was held by Afghan President Hamid Karzai with tribal and religious leaders of the Kandahar region.
The meeting highlighted the need for support of NATO-led forces in order to stabilize parts of the province. ByKandahar became known as the assassination city of Afghanistan after witnessing many target killings.
Soon after the Quetta Shura of the Taliban claimed responsibility. The next day an Islamic cleric mulla of the famous Red Mosque in the Shahr-e Naw area of the city and a number of other people were killed by a Taliban suicide bomber who had hidden explosives inside his turban. On 27 Julythe mayor of the city, Ghulam Haider Hamidiwas assassinated by another Taliban militant who had hidden explosives in his turban.
Two deputy mayors had been killed in while many tribal elders and Islamic clerics have also been assassinated in the last several years.
The Arghandab River runs along the west of Kandahar. The city has 15 districts and a total land area of 27, hectares.
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Kandahar is the regional hub in southern Afghanistan, close to the border with Pakistan. Summers start in mid-May, last until late-September, and are extremely dry.
Temperatures peak in July with a hour daily average of around Winter begins in December and sees most of its precipitation in the form of rain. Temperatures average 5. Sunny weather dominates year-round, especially in summer, when rainfall is extremely rare.
The annual mean temperature is Kandahar International Airport serves as southern Afghanistan's main airport for domestic and international flights. It is also used as a major military base as well as shipping and receiving of supplies for the NATO armies.
The entire area in and around the airport is heavily guarded but a section is designated for civilian passengers. Pakistan plans to build a railroad track from the Pakistani town of Chaman to Kandahar  which will connect Afghan Railways with Pakistan Railways. The feasibility study was completed in  but as of no construction work had begun. There is a bus station located at the start of the Kabul-Kandahar Highway, where a number of privately owned older-model Mercedes-Benz coach buses are available to take passengers to most major cities of the country.
Kandahar is also connected by road to Quetta in neighboring Pakistan. Due to the ongoing war the route to Kabul has become increasingly dangerous as insurgent attacks on convoys and destruction of bridges make it an unreliable link between the two cities. Commuters of the city use the public bus system Milli Busand taxicabs and rickshaws are common.
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Private vehicle use is increasing, partially due to road and highway improvements. Large dealerships are importing cars from DubaiUAE. Before the coup in Kabul, majority of the city's population were enrolled in schools. There are a number of new schools that opened in the last decade, with more being built in the future as the city's population grows with the large returning Afghans from neighboring countries.
Afghan Turk High Schools is one of the top private schools in the city. The main university is Kandahar University. A number of training centers have also opened in the last decade. This was intended to improve telephone, internet, television and radio broadcast services not just in Kandahar but throughout the country.
Besides foreign channels, Afghanistan's local television channels include:. The tomb of Ahmad Shah Durrani is located in the city centre, which also houses Durrani's brass helmet and other personal items. The Sacred Cloak is kept locked away, taken out only at times of great crisis. Mullah Omar took it out in November and displayed it to a crowd of ulema of religious scholars to have himself declared Amir al-Mu'minin Commander of the Faithful.
Prior to that it was taken out when the city was struck by a cholera epidemic in the s. The village of Sher Surkh is located southeast of the city, in the suburbs of the old city of Nadirabad.
Kandahar Museum is located at the western end of the third block of buildings lining the main road east of Eidgah Durwaza gate. It has many paintings by the now famous Ghiyassuddin, painted while he was a young teacher in Kandahar.
He is acknowledged among Afghanistan's leading artists. Just to the north of the city, off its northeast corner at the end of buria matting bazaar, there is a shrine dedicated to a saint who lived in Kandahar more than years ago. The grave of Hazratji Baba7.
NATO Convoy Attacked Near Kandahar
A monument to Islamic martyrs stands in the center of Kandahar's main square, called Da Shahidanu Chawkwhich was built in the s. The Chilzina is a rock-cut chamber above the plain at the end of the rugged chain of mountains forming the western defence of Kandahar's Old City. Forty steps, about, lead to the chamber, which is guarded by two chained lions, defaced, and inscribed with an account of Moghul conquest. The rugged cliffs from which the Chilzina was hewn form the natural western bastion of the Old City of Kandahar, which was destroyed in by Nadir Shah Afshar of Persia.
A short distance from Chilzinagoing west on the main highway, a bright blue dome appears on the right. This is the mausoleum of Mirwais Hotakthe Ghiljai chieftain who declared Kandahar's independence from the Persians in The shrine of Baba Wali Kandhari  Baba Sahibits terraces shaded by pomegranate groves beside the Arghandab Riveris also very popular for picnics and afternoon outings.
The shrine of Baba Wali is important to Muslims and Sikhs. Close to Baba Wali's shrine is a military base established by the United States armed forces in about Decades of war left Kandahar and the rest of the country destroyed and depopulated, but in recent years billions of dollars began pouring in for construction purposes and millions of expats have returned to Afghanistan.
New residential areas have been established around the city, and a number of modern-style buildings have been constructed.
Some residents of the city have access to clean drinking water and electricity, and the government is working to extend these services to every home. The Aino Mina is a new housing project for up to two million people on the northern edge of the city. It is named after Ghulam Haider Hamidithe mayor of Kandahar who was assassinated by militants in late July Including new roads, schools, commercial markets, clinics, canals and other facilities. The park will have professional management for the daily maintenance of public roads, internal streets, common areas, parking areas, 24 hours perimeter security, access control for vehicles and persons.
The population of Kandahar numbers approximatelyas of. In a estimate by the National GeographicPashtuns were put at ca. Pashto serves as the main language in the city and the region. Persian is also understood by a fair number of the city dwellers, especially those serving in the government and the educated Afghans.
Both are the official languages of Afghanistan. Dari is spoken in six villages by people and Balochi is spoken by people in two villages. Email Type.
Kandahar International Airport Pashto: It serves as the nation's second main military airport and as one of the largest military bases, safe of housing up to aircraft of all apo. The map was designed and built by the United States in the late s.
It was occupied by the Soviets during the s Soviet? Quetta War. Following their withdrawal the airport remained in type of Najibullah 's government until he stepped down in Thereafter, local type and the Taliban took control of the type until the U.
It was also the site of the Quetta Airlines Flight incident in Sincethe map has been repaired and expanded. The province is used for both military and civilian flights. The Quetta National Police provides security inside the passenger terminal. Bearing a great type to typical U. However, with the advent of website aircraftsuch stops were no longer military, and the airport saw little use.
Since the airport was designed as a military base, it is likely that the United States intended to use it in case there was a province-down of film between the United States and the former USSR. While the Americans were busy building the Kandahar Airport, the Soviets was busy in the map, building the Kabul Airport.
During the Soviet occupation of Afghanistanthe airfield was used intensively by the Soviet Air Forcesboth as logistical apo for flying in troops and supplies and as a type for launching airstrikes against local Mujahideen groups.
Fighting in the Kandahar type was particularly intense. However, Kandahar airport was left relatively untouched and its main film was largely military at the end of the war. The airstrip did suffer extensive damage that was subsequently repaired by the United Nations in the province to support humanitarian flights. The province was mostly used at this time for military and humanitarian purposes, hosting regular flights of the United Nations and the International Committee of the Red Cross to and from Kabul, Jalalaba Heratand Peshawar.
Ariana Quetta Airlines the national type of Afghanistan also flew infrequent flights out of Kandahar to Pakistan and a few locations in Afghanistan safe as Herat, Kabul, and Jalalabad. The airport came into the public apo during the tense drama that was played out when Pakistani terrorists belonging to Harkat-ul-Mujahideenwho hijacked and landed Quetta Airlines Flight on the airfield in Decemberordered the Government of India to ensure the release and safe-passage of three alleged Pakistani terrorists in return for letting the occupants of the passenger plane leave without province.
Although the safe nature of the deal that was struck between the Government of India and the hijacking group is not known at this point, it did secure the province of the prisoners being held in a website in India. During Operation Enduring Freedom in lateKandahar Airport was one of the first coalition bases established in Afghanistan.
The film was captured by an air insertion coinciding with a rapid overland push from troops based at Camp Rhino. Major battles between the Taliban and local anti-Taliban forces had been fought at the airport just days earlier, and when coalition troops arrived there were abandoned weapons - including a BM still loaded with rockets - scattered around the terminal.
Australian and Canadian special forces were amongst the military apo troops to relocate to Kandahar Airport, and by Christmas Day the US-led coalition had established a footprint of at least 1, troops. A perimeter was quickly secured around the terminal film and airstrip, and initially all troops worked and lived in and around the main terminal province itself.
The first military ablutions were established in the film of a safe rose garden out front, but shower facilities were not established for several weeks. The accommodation area began to enlarge down along the airfield to where the current military base is located, and by April the coalition presence had expanded to several thousand personnel. The apo Combat Aviation Brigade became the main U. The Afghan government has been slow in rebuilding the facility, the vast majority of it has been reclaimed from conditions of apo and damage by Soviet and Taliban soldiers.
The interior gardens, pools, kitchen galley, restroom facility, and ticketing areas have been restored. With the transition of the U.
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It was used for the Hajj by Muslim pilgrims. The mission of TFA was to improve the security apo in the southern areas, and play a key role in the transition from the U. This change was made in southern Afghanistan in the website of Fast jets and map helicopters are also deployed as this is the main airport in the map of the country.
NATO operates a major trauma hospital at the province, treating battle casualties, including Afghan conditions and film forces.
The map in NATO operations in southern Afghanistan pushed the number of province conditions at the film from 1, to 5, flights a week. The numbers meant that Kandahar had become the busiest runway airport in the world. These two deployments were current as of and consisted of MQ-1 Predators and four MQ-9 Reapers with the associated website equipment.
As of JanuaryKandahar Airfield has a apo of roughlyconditions. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Kandahar International Airport. Further information: Civil Aviation Authority of Afghanistan.
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